'The scale of facilities varies from a few square meters to several square kilometers'
Sites are designed to meet local conditions. For example, livestock is used where agricultural production is the main goal. If the main aim is treated water, components are modified to emphasize elimination of pathogens.
Possible configurations are:
- household (i.e. 1 - 15 houses), where central collection systems are unavailable. May include dry compost toilets and graywater systems, or biodigesters and garden areas. Size: 5 - 1000 square meters.
- multiple households, restaurants, schools: underground digestion, filtration, plus garden. Size: 0.5 - 10 hectares.
- small communities and farms: integrated wastewater recycling and agriculture with digesters, ponds, plants, fish, livestock, and crops. Size: 1 - 1,000 hectares.
- agro-industry recycling for high nutrient loads, with industrial-scale digesters, energy generation and fishery. Size: 1 - 50 hectares.
- conversion of a conventional sewage treatment, where a conventional facility already exists but fails to meet standard due to high costs or lack of maintenance. Size: 1 - 50 hectares.
Photo: Facility for apartment building in Dongguan, China (underground biodigester in lower left of photo, aquaponics and macrophyte ponds in center, plants for irrigation form perimeter). Facility for community. Serviced homes are in lower part of photo, Ponds of wastewater recycling facility are in far upper left. Silva Jardim, Brazil.